Biographies of Women’s Suffrage – G

A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z

Helen Leslie Gage (1845-1933) [Aberdeen, Brown County] was a suffrage supporter who lived in Aberdeen from the 1880s until 1906.  I have not found much online about her specific activities in South Dakota, but one Brown County history says she “worked for suffrage as long as she lived in Aberdeen” [Early History of Brown County (1970), 186 via].  A record of an address by Anna Howard Shaw in Aberdeen in 1914 mentioned a “Mrs. Helen Gage” with the group seated on the stage–by 1914, Gage lived in Duluth, Minnesota, but she did travel frequently, including attending a Congressional Union for Women Suffrage event in Bismarck in 1916 [Lemmon Herald (SD), September 18, 1914; Bismarck Tribune (ND), July 12, 1916].  Helen was the eldest daughter of Matilda Joslyn Gage, a national suffragist leader, and was invested her mother’s historical legacy [Ann D. Gordon, ed., The Selected Papers of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony: An Awful Hush 1895 to 1906, vol. 6 (New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2013), 491n7; “Helen Leslie Gage,”; Matilda Jewell Gage, Family Papers, H97-52 in LaVera Rose, “Dakota Resources: Women’s History Resources in the State Archives at the South Dakota State Historical Society,” South Dakota History 28(1) (Spring/Summer 1998), 79].  After her husband’s death, she lived with her daughter Leslie, a teacher/professor, and they moved from Fargo to Duluth to Winona, Minnesota [Aberdeen Democrat (SD), August 10, 1906; Directory and census records on].

Cora L. Gallett (1865-1949) [Aberdeen, Brown County] supported suffrage during a 1904 discussion at a meeting of the Social Science Club [Aberdeen Democrat (SD), November 25, 1904]. In 1918, she was elected to the city school board and supported the county suffrage campaign with hanging signs and circulating petitions [Pierre Weekly Free Press (SD), April 25, 1918; Pyle to Schuler, November 1, 1918, RA11625-RA11628, and Pyle to Gallett, November 2, 1918, RA11635, Box 4, Correspondence, 1918, November 1-7, Pyle Papers USD]. Cora Elizabeth Lyon was born in New York and married Delbert G. Gallett in about 1888. Her husband was a jewelry merchant and an optician. Cora also worked periods as a music teacher, teacher, clerk in her husband’s store, and as first reader for the Christian Science church (though she also was active in the Methodist church earlier). In the late 1920s, she was involved with local women’s clubs in support of prohibition, and in 1930, she served as state president of the Federation of Music Clubs [The State Democrat (Aberdeen SD), December 9, 1898, March 10, 1899; Mitchell Capital (SD), May 1, 1903; Aberdeen Democrat (SD), June 1, 1906, September 21, 1906; Mobridge News (SD), March 17, 1911; Black Hills Weekly (Deadwood, SD), May 14, 1930; The Daily Plainsman (Huron, SD), March 20, 1930; Hearing before the US Senate Judiciary Committee (1926), 730; 1900-1945 federal and state censuses and 1915-1945 Aberdeen city directories, via; “Cora Elizabeth Lyon Gallett,”].

Harry L. Gandy (1881-1957) [Wasta/Rapid City, Pennington County] brought petitions for suffrage (among other things) to the U.S. House in 1917 for the First Presbyterian Church of Lead, the Deadwood W.C.T.U., and citizens generally [Madison Daily Leader (SD), February 6, 1917]. He was also listed with “Noted Men of South Dakota for Suffrage” and quoted as saying “… I think the South Dakota legislature did a commendable act in submitting to the voters of the state an amendment to take away the privilege of voting where the newcomer has only declared his intention to become a citizen.  I have here in Congress supported—and heartily, too—the cause of woman suffrage.  There is no doubt but what the right of franchise is coming to the women of the land, and I hope South Dakota will not longer withhold the ballot from them” [The Citizen-Republican (Scotland SD), October 31, 1918].  A Democrat, Gandy was in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1916 to 1921, serving on committees for Indian affairs, irrigation, public lands, and railways [Pierre Weekly Free Press (SD), December 9, 1915].  See also: “Harry L. Gandy” in Kingsbury, History of Dakota Territory, vol. 4 (1915), 539-540; “Harry Gandy” on Wikipedia; and “Harry Luther Gandy,”

Henry J. Ganiere [Burkmere, Faulk County] was president of the Burkmere suffrage club [Citing Faulk County Record, Thursday, May 22, 1890, in Faulk County Newspaper Excerpts, SD Genealogy Trails].

Fannie M. Gardner [Parkston, Hutchinson County] served on a committee for the Parkston Woman Suffrage Campaign Committee [Winter to Pyle, January 14, 1918, RD07567, correspondence 1918-01, and Winter to Pyle, December 4, 1918, RA12022, Box 4, Correspondence, 1918, December, Pyle papers USD].

Kate M. Gardner (1860-1916?) [Ree Heights, Hand County] was president of the Ree Heights District of the Hand County Equal Franchise League [Letterhead, Ghrist to Pyle, March 7, 1918, RD08124, correspondence 1918-03-01 to 1918-03-11, Pyle papers USD; Letter from Kate M. Gardner to Breeden, August 1, 1910, RD06738 and RD06737, correspondence 1910-07 to 1910-08, Breeden papers USD].  I could not find much about her, but she was also involved with women’s mission work for the Congregational church and a stockholder (with other family members) in the First State Bank in Ree Heights [Fortieth Annual Report of the Woman’s Board of Missions of the Interior (Chicago: C.R. McCall Printing Co., 1908, 124; SD Department of Banking and Finance, Ninth Biennial Report of the Public Examiner of State Banks… (Sioux Falls: Mark D. Scott, 1910), 413].  Her husband Frank R. Gardner also served at least one term as a state legislator [Mitchell Capital (SD), November 13, 1908].

Helene A. Garner (1897-1951) [Madison, Lake County] was on the universal franchise committee for the Civic and Child Welfare Club in Madison [Madison Daily Leader (SD), March 30, 1916; April 5, 1916].  Garner was also involved with a Methodist women’s missionary society, the W.C.T.U., and the Women’s Relief Corps, and she was married to contractor Arthur J. Garner [Madison Daily Leader (SD), August 7, 1909December 6, 1909; October 18, 1915September 7, 1916; September 20, 1916; “Helene Aaste Garner,”].

Catherine Garrett (c1854-1915) [Harrold, Hughes County] was a delegate to the W.C.T.U. convention when they met jointly with suffragists in Pierre in 1895 and indicated her continued the support of both her and her daughter for suffrage in a 1910 letter to Jane Rooker Breeden [Pierre weekly free press., September 19, 1895; Garrett to Breeden, RD06779, correspondence 1910-09 to 1910-10, Breeden papers USD].  Her husband Richard M. Garrett had a successful farm and dairy in rural Hughes County and served on the county commission [Pierre Weekly Free Press (SD), January 14, 1904; “Catherine Garrett,”].

Agnes K. Gass (1859-1934) [Belle Fourche, Butte County] was secretary of the Butte County Universal Franchise League in 1917 [Pettigrew to Pyle, January 4, 1917, RD07481, correspondence 1917, Pyle papers USD].  Agnes Case’s husband was Luther C. Gass, they lived in Belle Fourche SD and Alzada MT, and they lost their only child when he was killed in France in 1918 [“Agnes K. Case Gass” and “Charles Edwin Gass,”].

* Marie J. Gaston (1845-1902) [Deadwood, Lawrence County] was active in local suffrage activity and one of the active field organizers in the northern Black Hills during the 1890 suffrage campaign, and remained involved in 1896. Gaston was a “pioneer” of Deadwood and an active member in the community.  She was active with the W.C.T.U., the founder and first president of the Round Table Club (a woman’s literary club), treasurer of the local Board of Education, and the initiator and first librarian for the Deadwood Public Library.  She was also one of the four “lady managers” from South Dakota to organize the state’s exhibits at the World’s Fair in Chicago in 1893.

See also: Kaija Swisher, “Deadwood’s First LibrarianRapid City Journal / Black Hills Pioneer (May 25, 2018); and Tim Velder, Northern Hills Bureau, “Women keep the tradition of Round Table Club alive,” Rapid City Journal (August 23, 2004).

marie gaston II
J.C. Croly, The History of the Woman’s Club Movement in America (New York: Henry G. Allen & Co., 1898), 326.

Ed Gates (1872-____) [Onida, Sully County] provided music for an entertainment held by the Equal Suffrage Club at Blunt with his father [Sully County Watchman (Onida SD), November 1, 1890].  Silas Edwin Gates and his father also provided music for many different local groups including the W.C.T.U., the literary society, the Women’s Relief Corps, and Old Settlers’ meetings [For example: Sully County Watchman (Onida SD), March 15, 1890March 7, 1891; March 21, 1891February 6, 1892; August 6, 1892February 17, 1893].  Gates also worked on local ranches and taught in rural schools [For example: Sully County Watchman (Onida SD), April 4, 1891; October 22, 1892; May 12, 1893].  In 1895, the Gates family moved to Montana [Big Timber Pioneer (MT), December 6, 1906].

Silas W. Gates (1848-1906) [Onida, Sully County] provided music for local suffrage club events [Sully County Watchman (Onida SD), November 1, 1890; February 14, 1891].  “Professor” S.W. Gates was “Onida’s Patron Saint of Music,” teaching vocal lessons and directing music for many local meetings and celebrations [For example: “Musical Life in Onida,” 75 Years of Sully County History, 1883-1958Sully County Watchman (Onida SD), August 17, 1889November 23, 1889June 7, 1890; February 10, 1893January 19, 1894].  Gates had come from Iowa to homestead in Summit Township and also worked as a blacksmith [Sully County Watchman (Onida SD), May 17, 1890; August 20, 1892].  The Gates family moved to Montana in 1895 and Gates continued his work as a blacksmith and as music teacher [Big Timber Pioneer (MT), June 22, 1905; June 29, 1905; December 6, 1906].

Ella R. Gauger (1891-1961) [Clear Lake, Deuel County] was treasurer of the Deuel County Franchise League in 1916 [Gauger to Pyle, July 6, 1916, RD07461, correspondence 1910-1916, Pyle Papers USD].  Ella Rose May Gauger was of German descent and married G. Christian Speidel in 1926 [SD marriage index on; “Ella Rose Gauger Speidel,”].

Susan Gay [Rapid City, Pennington County] hosted an equal suffrage association gathering at her home in North Rapid in 1910 [Black Hills Union and Western Stock Review (Rapid City, SD), August 5, 1910].  Gay also served on the board of education in 1902-1903, was involved with the Degree of Honor, and was on a Women’s Liberty Loan committee during the First World War [Black Hills Union (Rapid City, SD), January 17, 1902April 11, 1902, April 18, 1902October 2, 1903, January 15, 1909, January 14, 1910; Rapid City Journal (SD), April 16, 1918].  She was married to Charles C. Gay, who held multiple local civic offices [Black Hills Union (Rapid City, SD), April 4, 1902, September 5, 1902, August 21, 1903Black Hills Union and Western Stock Review (Rapid City, SD), December 25, 1908, August 6, 1909].

Jessie Geiger (1888-1919) [Salem / Huron] was asked to be involved with the suffrage campaign in 1918, presumably based on her involvement in 1916 [Pyle to county chairs, January 28, 1918, RD07614, correspondence 1918-01, and Pyle to Geiger, February 16, 1918, RD07851, correspondence 1918-02-09 to 1918-02-18, Pyle papers USD].  Jessie G. Walker was a teacher in Huron and married Ernest R. Geiger of Salem in 1914 [Aberdeen Democrat (SD), October 30, 1908; Daily Huronite (Huron, SD), February 6, 1914; Huron city directories 1907-1913 and SD marriage index on; “Jessie Gow Walker Geiger,”].

Josephine B. Gerber [Worthing, Lincoln County] wrote a series of editorials in support of suffrage for the Wessington Springs Herald and read an essay on women’s rights at a Farmers’ Alliance celebration in Lincoln County [Wessington Springs Herald (SD), February 28, 1890, March 7, 1890, March 14, 1890, pg. 1, pg. 8, March 21, 1890; Dakota Farmers’ Advocate (Canton SD), July 11, 1890].  Gerber also gave addresses at local Old Settlers’ Association picnics [For example: Dakota Farmers’ Leader (Canton, SD), June 1, 1894; June 27, 1902May 29, 1903].  She and husband Roman Gerber later moved to North Dakota, Montana, and California [Dakota Farmers’ Leader (Canton SD), March 9, 1906; January 20, 1911March 10, 1911Courier Democrat (Harlem ND), April 28, 1910, September 15, 1910; “Josephine Gerber,”].

Elizabeth V. Ghrist (1887-1973) [Miller, Hand County], daughter of May P. Ghrist, sang at the event where Fola LaFollette gave an address in Huron [Sisseton Weekly Standard (SD), July 17, 1914].  Elizabeth later married Marmaduke Straith-Miller and moved to Pasadena, California [Star News (Pasadena CA), June 12, 1973; census records and Washington marriage index on].

May P. Ghrist (1867-1925) [Miller, Hand County] was lecturer and vice-president of the South Dakota Universal Franchise League and was president of the Hand County Equal Franchise League from 1915 to 1918.  More in link.

Jenny R. Gifford (1855-1931) [Canton, Lincoln County] hosted a suffrage meeting and campaigner Perle Penfield in 1910, and Penfield planned to ask Gifford to help with translating suffrage literature into German [Dakota Farmers’ Leader (Canton SD), January 28, 1910; RD06644, RD06650, Correspondence 1910-05, Breeden papers USD].  In 1918, she served as chair of the suffrage campaign committee in Canton [McMahon to Pyle, February 25, 1918, RD07979, correspondence 1918-02-19 to 1918-02-28, and Pyle to Gifford, November 3, 1918, RA11644, Box 4, Correspondence, 1918, November 1-7, Pyle papers USD; Reed, The Woman Suffrage Movement in South Dakota, 122].  Jenny H. Rudolph was a teacher, principal, and secretary of the state education association before marrying widower Oscar Sherman Gifford in 1899, and continued in service to the local school board and county teacher’s institutes [The School Journal 56 (January 18, 1898), 80Turner County Herald (Hurley SD), November 2, 1899; Dakota Farmers’ Leader (Canton SD), January 3, 1896August 16, 1901; June 17, 1904; June 23, 1905; December 19, 1913; “Jenny R. Rudolph Gifford,”].  She was also involved with the Episcopal Ladies’ Guild, local women’s clubs, the Order of the Eastern Star, and critical to organizing the Carnegie Public Library in Canton [Dakota Farmers’ Leader (Canton SD), February 22, 1901; February 21, 1902; August 29, 1902December 25, 1903; December 30, 1904; January 18, 1907; September 12, 1913May 1, 1914; The Citizen-Republican (Scotland SD, June 15, 1905; South Dakota Library Bulletin 49(2) (1963), 19; “Canton Carnegie Library,” #16000826, National Register of Historic Places nomination (2016)].  Her husband was a prominent attorney, politician, and businessman [Doane Robinson, History of South Dakota, vol. 2 (1905), 1010-1011; “Oscar S. Gifford,”].

* Nana E. Gilbert (1867-1918) [Salem, McCook County] was supportive of suffrage in her newspaper in 1909 and became chair of the state press committee in the first half of 1910 before illness prevented her from continuing the work.  In 1918, she was again willing to serve on the county suffrage campaign committee, but she became ill again and passed away on October 31, 1918, only days before the suffrage vote carried in South Dakota.

Mitchell Capital (SD), January 24, 1908.

Professor William Wallace Girton (1850-1927) [Madison, Lake County] was elected one of the auditors of a new Lake County Equal Suffrage Association [Madison Daily Leader (SD), November 12, 1897].  Girton was an instructor at the State Normal School (now Dakota State University) in Madison.  After a career in education as teacher, principal, teachers’ institute instructor, and county school superintendent in Wisconsin, Iowa, and South Dakota, he took the position in Madison in 1896 and worked there until resigning in about 1914 for his health.  Over the years, he also was involved with real estate, newspapers, territorial government, and banking, as well as the Masons, Odd Fellows, A.O.U.W., and temperance organizations [“William W. Girton,” DSU Archives; O.W. Coursey, Who’s Who in South Dakota, vol. 2 (Mitchell: Educator School Supply Co., 1916), Girton biography; Biographical History of Shelby and Audubon Counties, Iowa (Chicago: W.S. Dunbar & Co., 1889), 242, 252Pierre Weekly Free Press (SD), November 24, 1892; Madison Daily Leader (SD), December 30, 1895, June 10, 1896, June 13, 1896, July 27, 1896, April 18, 1898December 3, 1903, July 10, 1907, November 20, 1912The Herald-Advance (Milbank SD), June 12, 1896].  Girton was born in England, immigrating to Michigan with his family in 1850.  He married Frances Richmond in Wisconsin in 1877 [“William W. Girton,” DSU Archives; Coursey, Who’s Who in South Dakota (1916), Girton biography; “William Wallace Girton,”].

Frances “Fannie” R. Girton  (1852-1936) [Madison, Lake County] provided music with her daughters Susie and Edith and gave a paper “on the opportunities of women prior to the opening of Oberlin college” at a Political Equality club program at the Methodist Episcopal church in Madison in 1897 [Madison Daily Leader (SD), October 28 and October 30, 1897].  In 1910, she was involved in the suffrage movement as well and hosted an Equal Suffrage club meeting at her house [Madison Daily Leader (SD), March 21 and March 22, 1910].  Girton was also involved with the W.C.T.U., the local Mother’s club / Parent-Teacher organization, and the Philharmonic society [Madison Daily Leader (SD), August 28, 1897November 22, 1897, November 5, 1898, January 21, 1905, August 3, 1905October 11, 1905May 2, 1906, November 16, 1912February 26, 1918].  Frances Richmond was born in Ireland, immigrated to the U.S. and married William W. Girton in 1877 [“William W. Girton,” DSU Archives; Coursey, Who’s Who in South Dakota (1916), Girton biography; “Frances R. Richmond Girton,”].

William and Fannie Girton. 1921 passport application photograph, via

Martha A. Glidden (1862-1934) [Millboro, Tripp County] agreed to be suffrage committee chair for Millboro during Rose Bower’s campaign tour in 1914 [Woman’s West of the River Suffrage Number, Rapid City Daily Journal (SD), October 26, 1914].  According to the 1915 county atlas, 1900-1930 censuses, and other records on  Martha and husband Preston T. Glidden lived in (or owned land in) Tripp County in 1910-1915, but had lived in Brooklyn Township, Lincoln County before that and afterwards moved to Beresford, Union County [ records; Atlas of Tripp County (1915), 42; “Martha A. Glidden,”].  In Lincoln County, her husband had been involved with the Populist/Independent party, and in Millboro, had had banking interests [Dakota Farmers’ Leader (Canton SD), September 7, 1894; Pierre Weekly Free Press (SD), July 1, 1909].

Celina J. Goddard (1851-1924) [Sully County / Pierre] was named vice-president of a new equal suffrage society organized by D.F. Sweetland at the Goddard school house in Sully County [Page 30 : [news clipping : D.F. Sweetland organizes Equal Suffrage Society], Emma Smith DeVoe: 1880-1890 (Scrapbook D), Washington State Library Manuscripts, MS 171, Box 10].  Goddard was a teacher and married to Albert C. Goddard [Sully County Watchman (Onida SD), August 9, 1890, October 20, 1893; “Celina J Goddard,”].  They later moved to Pierre and their house at 111 S. Van Buren Ave was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in February 2018 for its local architectural significance [Celina and Albert Goddard House, NRIS SG100002102].

Frank Goddard (1859-1952) [Sully County] was secretary of a new equal suffrage society organized by D.F. Sweetland at the Goddard school house in Sully County [Page 30 : [news clipping : D.F. Sweetland organizes Equal Suffrage Society], Emma Smith DeVoe: 1880-1890 (Scrapbook D), Washington State Library Manuscripts, MS 171, Box 10].  Goddard was a farmer/stock raiser in Sully County (Iowa/Goodwater Township), and married Clara Elizabeth Montgomery [Sully County Watchman (Onida SD), June 20, 1891; June 2, 1893; Pierre Weekly Free Press (SD), June 24, 1909; Mrs. E. L. Thompson, Ed., 75 Years of Sully County History, 1883 – 1958, pages 274-298; “Frank Nathan Goddard,”].

Thomas Miller Goddard (1846-1917) [Onida, Sully County] was named treasurer of the new Onida Equal Suffrage Club and spoke at at least one suffrage meeting in Onida [Sully County Watchman (Onida SD), April 19, 1890; January 24, 1891, May 9, 1891Onida Journal (SD), April 19, 1890, Page 32 : [news clipping: Emma Smith DeVoe in Onida], Emma Smith DeVoe: 1880-1890 (Scrapbook D), WSL Manuscripts, MS 171, Box 10].  Goddard came from Iowa to homestead in Goodwater Township, Sully County in 1883, was a wheat farmer, was district attorney (1886-1889) and county judge (1889-) [Sully County Watchman (Onida SD), March 7, 1885, February 16, 1889August 30, 1890].  He was also active in local temperance organizations, a musician, and active in the Grand Army of the Republic and the Old Settlers’ Association [For example: Sully County Watchman (Onida SD), March 30, 1889, December 14, 1889February 13, 1892, April 23, 1892, August 6, 1892March 17, 1893].  From 1903 to 1907, he served as commandant, and his wife Martha served as matron, of the State Soldiers’ Home in Hot Springs [Hot Springs Weekly Star (SD), April 10, 1903, October 10, 1907].  Additional family stories posted on: “Thomas Miller Goddard,” and “Martha Freeman Lepper Goddard,”

Stephen H. Goepfert (1858-1923) [Watertown, Codington County] was one of the local representatives on the stage for the speech of Mary Baird Bryan in Watertown in October 1916 and was on the 15-member executive committee of the Codington County men’s league for woman suffrage in 1916 [Saturday News (Watertown SD), October 12, 1916, October 26, 1916]. Of German ancestry, Goepfert had homesteaded in Deuel County in the 1880s then settled in Watertown with his wife Rose Davis and worked as a traveling salesman. Goepfert was also involved with the local commercial club, the First Methodist church, and the 1916 state prohibition campaign [Saturday News (Watertown SD), October 21, 1915, April 20, 1916, June 8, 1916; BLM-GLO records, 1900-1925 census, and 1909-1926 directory via; “Stephen H. Goepfert,”].

Alice S. Gold [Big Stone City, Grant County] was described as “a good suffragist” by organizer Marie McMahon in 1918 [McMahon to Olson, February 18, 1918, RD07875, correspondence 1918-02-09 to 1918-02-18, Pyle papers USD].  Alice Harrington was married to John T. Gold, was active with the Methodist ladies aid and missionary societies, and held multiple offices in the state’s Eighth District W.C.T.U. [For example: The Herald (Big Stone City SD), November 2, 1888, September 20, 1889The Herald-Advance (Milbank SD), January 1, 1904, September 28, 1906, May 22, 1908, May 2, 1913May 16, 1913, April 10, 1914].

Shepard H. Goodfellow [Brookings, Brookings County] was at the 1909 state suffrage convention in Sioux Falls and was appointed to the resolution committee.  He also “in a little farewell speech, pledged 12,000 for woman suffrage from the state A.O.U.W.” (Ancient Order of United Workmen) [Argus-Leader (Sioux Falls, SD), November 5, 1909; Sisseton Weekly Standard (SD), November 12, 1909].  In 1910, he also served on the large campaign committee [RD06638, Votes for Women Campaign letterhead, May 1910, Jane Rooker Breeden correspondence, 1910-05, USD].  Goodfellow was a hotel landlord (at least for a time), active in the A.O.U.W., and an active politician in the Independent (1890-1894), Socialist (1908-1912), and Free Silver Republican parties (1916) [For example: The Mitchell Capital (SD), June 20, 1890, March 2, 1894; Turner County Herald (Hurley SD), July 27, 1899, October 29, 1908; Pierre Weekly Free Press (SD), June 9, 1910April 24, 1913; Sisseton Weekly Standard (SD), March 10, 1911; Argus-Leader (Sioux Falls SD), June 24, 1916Page 56 : Program: Independent Rally, Emma Smith DeVoe: 1880-1890 (Scrapbook D), WSL Manuscripts, MS 171, Box 10; Journal of the Senate of the Second Session of the Legislature (Pierre: Journal Publishing Co., 1891), 5, 405].

Grace G. Goodykoontz (1869-1947) [Mitchell, Davison County] contributed solo performances to the 1897 state suffrage convention in Mitchell [Mitchell Capital (SD), September 17, 1897].  Goodykoontz was a trained vocal music instructor who often performed at community and social occasions, and taught for many years [For example: Mitchell Capital (SD), February 17, 1888, November 30, 1894May 29, 1896, September 8, 1905, June 29, 1906].  She also taught in Iowa in the 1890s, and after moving to Salisbury, North Carolina, between 1908 and 1910 [Sioux City Journal (IA), August 23, 1891; Iowa Normal Monthly 15(5) (December 1891), 196; Mitchell Capital (SD), November 13, 1891, September 7, 1894; “Grace Gifford Goodykoontz,”].

* Alice R. Bower Gossage (1861-1929) [Rapid City, Pennington County] served as a second vice-president of the South Dakota Equal Suffrage Association in 1892, on the publicity committee of the Votes for Women Campaign in 1910, and instigated a 1914 special feature of the Rapid City Daily Journal about the suffrage campaign [Mitchell Capital (SD), December 9, 1892;RD06634, Votes for Women Campaign letterhead, May 1910, Jane Rooker Breeden correspondence, 1910-05, USD; Husted, History of Woman Suffrage, v.1 (1881), 559; Woman’s West of the River Suffrage Number, Rapid City Daily Journal (SD), October 26, 1914].  In November 1918, she reported to Pyle on the local election results [Gossage to Pyle, November 6, 1918, RA11708, Box 4, Correspondence, 1918, November 1-7, Pyle Papers USD].

Alice Rhoda Bower was born in Wisconsin and moved with her family to Vermillion in 1870.  Her first job was working for the Vermillion Standard as a typesetter.  She also worked for the Dakota Republican and the Parker New Era.  Her family moved to Keystone in 1885 and formed the Bower Family Band.  Her sister Rose Bower was also active in the suffrage movement for years.  Alice Bower married Joseph B. Gossage in 1882 [“Dakota Images: Alice R. Gossage,” South Dakota History 4(4) (1974)].  They published the Rapid City Daily Journal, and, after her husband fell ill, Alice took over full management of the paper in 1890 and eventually became its main editor [Hot Springs Weekly Star (SD), July 22, 1904; Black Hills Engineer 12(4) (November 1924), 257; “Dakota Images: Alice R. Gossage“; “Rhoda Alice ‘Od’ Bower Gossage,”; Maurine Beasley, “Recent Directions for the Study of Women’s History in American Journalism,” Journalism Studies 2(2) (2001), 218].  For her contributions to the city, a monument was erected in her memory along Skyline Drive overlooking Rapid City [“Dakota Images: Alice R. Gossage“].  Gossage was an active supporter of the temperance movement, WCTU office holder, and edited the White Ribbon Journal [Black Hills Union (Rapid City, SD), August 30, 1895; Pierre Weekly Free Press (SD), September 12, 1895; Mitchell Capital (SD), September 30, 1898, September 19, 1902, September 17, 1914Black Hills Union and Western Stock Review (Rapid City SD), October 23, 1908; Lead Daily Call (SD), August 16, 1909; Kingsbury, History of Dakota Territory vol. 3 (1915), 771].
See also: 
Nelson, Paula M., ed. Sunshine Always: The Courtship Letters of Alice Bower & Joseph Gossage of Dakota Territory. Pierre: South Dakota State Historical Society Press, 2006.
Robert F. Karolevitz. With a Shirt Tail Full of Type: The Story of Newspapering in South Dakota. South Dakota Press Assn., 1982. 
Historic image of the Rapid City Journal, SDSHS #2007-12-11-024.

Woman’s West of the River Suffrage Number, Rapid City Daily Journal (SD), October 26, 1914.

Carrie E. Gramlich (1880-1940) [Deadwood, Lawrence County] was a leading signer of a 1916 petition for suffrage and was one of the many hostesses for the suffrage School of Methods held in Deadwood in June 1918 [Daily Deadwood Pioneer-Times (SD), November 7, 1916, June 12, 1918].  Carrie Thompson married Fred D. Gramlich, a merchant, in 1906 [Daily Deadwood Pioneer-Times (SD), June 29, 1906].  She graduated from the University of Wisconsin in 1902, taught in high schools in Iowa, Hot Springs SD, and Deadwood SD; was on the Deadwood board of education in the 1920s; and was involved with the Federation of Women’s Clubs, the Round Table Club (women’s club), the Black Hills Pioneer Society, the Fortnightly Club, P.E.O., and AAUW [Daily Deadwood Pioneer-Times (SD), June 28, 1924, September 20, 1927; Deadwood Pioneer-Times (SD), June 28, 1934, May 10, 1940Deadwood Telegram (SD), November 13, 1924].  In 1931, the Gramlichs moved to Rapid City [Deadwood Pioneer-Times (SD), October 4, 1931, May 10, 1940; “Carrie E Gramlich,”].

Harriet S. Grant (1869-1944) [Huron, Beadle County] supported the state suffrage campaign in 1918. Of her and Mrs. R.H. Lewis, McMahon said “Neither of these women had been a suffrage worker before, but they rose to the emergency and left nothing undone to put their counties ‘over the top'” [Maria S. (Mrs. Albert) McMahon, “How to Win a State,” The Woman Citizen 3 (November 16, 1918), 509; Ida Husted Harper, Ed., The History of Woman Suffrage, vol. 6 (New York: J.J. Little & Ives Co., 1922), 594].  Grant was also involved with the Federation of Women’s Clubs, a Republican candidate for county superintendent of schools in 1896, and an instructor at the Lake County teacher’s institute [Daily Plainsman (Huron SD), June 19, 1896; Madison Daily Leader (SD), July 19, 1897; July 7, 1898; The State Democrat (Aberdeen SD), January 6, 1899; American Art Annual 14 (1918), 267; The Official Register of Women’s Clubs (1919), 194; “Harriet S Grant,”].

Henry J. Grant (1830-1931) [Whitewood, Lawrence County] signed on as the president of the suffrage club formed in Whitewood at the visit of Emma Smith DeVoe in May 1890 and therefore made a vice-president of the Lawrence County association formed in August 1890 [The Plain Dealer (Whitewood SD), May 17, 1890, “Page 35 : Entire Page,” and The Dakota Ruralist (Aberdeen SD), June 14, 1890, “Page 37 : Entire Page,” Emma Smith DeVoe: 1880-1890 (Scrapbook D), WSL Manuscripts, MS 171, Box 10; Daily Deadwood Pioneer-Times (SD), August 9, 1890; Queen City Mail (Spearfish SD), August 13, 1890]. H.J. Grant had come to Dakota Territory in 1886 to ranch sheep in Harding County [Weekly Pioneer-Times (Deadwood, SD), April 2, 1931]. Grant also served as a justice of the peace, and was involved with the Independent party [Queen City Mail (Spearfish, SD), July 2, 1890; Black Hills Daily Times (Deadwood SD), August 19, 1890, August 18, 1892; Sturgis Advertiser (SD), May 7, 1891; Lead Daily Call (SD), October 26, 1904; Deadwood Pioneer-Times (SD), October 18, 1942]. Grant and his wife Anna started wintering in California in the early 1900s and moved there in 1910 [Lead Daily Call (SD), December 23, 1905; Daily Deadwood Pioneer-Times (SD), February 20, 1910, September 24, 1915; Weekly Pioneer Times Mining Review (Deadwood, SD), August 22, 1912]. Also: “Henry J. Grant,”

H.J. Grant, at a district Farmers’ Alliance convention, April 1890:
“When I became of age [the constitution] allowed me to vote, and when I cast that first vote I realized the injustice to my mother, in that she was beneath her son by the laws of our nation.  Later I chose a partner fully my equal and yet she could not go with me to the polls.  First in all charitable work, first in everything where duty calls, and yet by law inferior.  This is now the important question of the day.”
Black Hills Union (Rapid City SD), April 11, 1890.

Ernest I. Gregory (1868-1941) [Alexandria, Hanson County] was a township vice-president for the Hanson County Equal Suffrage Association when it was organized by Susan B. Anthony in June 1890 [Mitchell Capital (SD), June 27, 1890].  Gregory also worked in real estate, insurance, and as a retail hardware merchant, being involved with the organization of the South Dakota Retail Hardware Dealers’ Association [Mitchell Capital (SD), January 19, 1906Aberdeen Democrat (SD), February 7, 1908].  He was involved with the local Republican party and served as county auditor [Mitchell Capital (SD), September 21, 1894, August 27, 1897, and December 24, 1897].  During World War I, he was active as a county representative to the state Council of Defense [Turner County Herald (Hurley SD), June 14, 1917; Mitchell Capital (SD), May 2, 1918].  Gregory was married to Georgia B. Cook [“Ernest Insley Gregory,”].

Mary E. Griffee (_-1929) [Faulk County] was president of the Seneca suffrage club when it was organized during the 1890 campaign [Citing Faulk County Record, Thursday, May 22, 1890, in Faulk County Newspaper Excerpts, SD Genealogy Trails].  Griffee was married to Abraham D. Griffee, and they also lived for a time in Gettysburg, S.D. [C.H. Ellis, History of Faulk County, South Dakota (Faulkton SD: Record Print, 1909), 310; Mitchell Capital (SD), May 16, 1902, May 16, 1902; Turner County Herald (Hurley SD), May 26, 1904; Madison Daily Leader (SD), May 19, 1905; “Mary Griffee,”].

Mary A. Groesbeck (c1857-) [Watertown, Codington County] started suffrage campaign work in 1890 [Dakota Ruralist, June 28, 1890, “Page 42 : Entire Page,” Emma Smith DeVoe: 1880-1890 (Scrapbook D), WSL Manuscripts, MS 171, Box 10]. She served as president of the South Dakota Equal Suffrage Association in 1892-1893, was vice-president in 1894-1895, and was involved at least through 1896 [Robinson, History of South Dakota (1904), 601; Husted, v.1 (1881), 558; Union County Courier (Elk Point SD), September 20, 1894; Dakota Farmers’ Leader (Canton SD), September 21, 1894; Sioux City Journal (IA), September 6, 1895; Harriet Taylor Upton, ed., Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Annual Convention of the National American Woman Suffrage Association (Warren OH: Chronicle Print, 1894), 214, 234; Rachel Foster Avery, ed., Proceedings of the Twenty-Ninth Annual Convention of the National American Woman Suffrage Association v.29 (Philadelphia: Alfred J. Ferris. 1897), 111].  She was married to Civil War veteran Dr. Stewart V. Groesbeck, and was involved with the state leadership for the Women’s Relief Corps in 1886, the temperance/prohibition movement in 1889, and the Eastern Star in 1892. In about 1902, they moved to Spearfish for her husbands’ health, and she was involved with the Twentieth Century Club there. They moved to Hot Springs in 1908 when her husband was put in charge of hospital work at the State Soldiers’ Home. In 1909 or 1910, after her husband’s death in December 1908, she moved to her sister’s home in Iowa [Press and Daily Dakotaian (Yankton SD), March 29, 1886; Warner Sun (SD), April 2, 1886; Star Tribune (Minneapolis, MN), December 12, 1889; Madison Daily Leader (SD), May 26, 1892; Hot Springs Weekly Star (SD), August 12, 1904, June 26, 1908; Saturday News (Watertown SD), July 31, 1908; Lead Daily Call (SD), October 8, 1906, January 2, 1909, August 16, 1909; Queen City Mail (Spearfish, SD), January 6, 1909, January 12, 1910, December 7, 1972; 1900-1910 U.S. censuses and Civil War Pension Index on; “Stewart V. Groesbeck,”].

Catherine E. Grundland [Mitchell, Davison County] was the first treasurer of the Mitchell Universal Franchise League and led a lesson on suffrage for the Mitchell Art Club [Mitchell Capital (SD), April 30, 1914; Mitchell Daily Republican (SD), October 24, 1914].  In 1920, she accompanied Myra Weller to Scotland, S.D. to speak to women voters at a Scotland Civic League meeting; Weller spoke on citizenship and Grundland answered questions about the Richards primary law [The Citizen-Republican (Scotland SD), March 25, 1920].  She was married to Norwegian immigrant Sever M. Grundland, came to Mitchell in 1910, lived at 621 W Third Ave., and was active in the W.C.T.U., women’s clubs, and local charitable causes [The Citizen-Republican (Scotland SD), May 19, 1910Mitchell Capital (SD), November 17, 1910, November 6, 1913, January 29, 1914, April 16, 1914April 15, 1915, February 17, 1916, and October 4, 1917].  She was also related to Robert E. Dowdell of Artesian who also supported suffrage, and her sister Mary A. Dean ran for alderman in Chicago as Prohibition candidate [Mitchell Capital (SD), June 4, 1914, February 10, 1916].

Mamie L. Weeks Gunderson (1875-1958) [Vermillion, Clay County] was chair of the Clay County Suffrage League in 1918 [McMahon to Pyle, February 27, 1918, RD08009, correspondence 1918-02-19 to 1918-02-28, Pyle papers USD; The Woman Citizen 2 (May 25, 1918), 510].  Gunderson was auditor for the SD LWV in 1920, vice-presidnet in 1922, and part of its executive committee in 1923-1926 [Sisseton Weekly Standard (SD), September 17, 1920; Madison Daily Leader (SD), April 8, 1922; Argus-Leader (Sioux Falls, SD), May 14, 1923; The Discerning Voter 1(8) (April 1926), 4, 1(10) (June-July 1926), 4, and 2(2) (September-October 1926), 4]. Mamie L. Weeks was born in Minnesota, the daughter of Clay County pioneers from Norway, and she married Charles L. Gunderson, attorney and Norwegian-American, in 1902 [Robinson, History of South Dakota, vol. 1 (1904), 723].  Gunderson was president of the South Dakota Federation of Women’s Clubs in 1917 and involved with the National Council of Defense [Gunderson to Pyle, June 1, 1917, RD07492, correspondence 1917, Pyle papers USD]. After her death in 1958, she was buried at Bluff View Cemetery in Vermillion [“Mamie Weeks Gunderson,”].

The Woman Citizen 2 (May 25,, 1918), 510.

Reverend Dr. F.H. Gwynne (_-1912) [Madison, Lake County] gave the invocation/prayers at the openings of lectures by Anna Howard Shaw at the opera house in Madison in April 1890 and by Susan B. Anthony at the opera house in June 1890 [Madison Daily Leader (SD), April 21, 1890, June 28, 1890].  Rev. Gwynne was minister of the Presbyterian church in Madison from February to November 1890; he later lived in Montana [Madison Daily Leader (SD), October 15, 1892, October 9, 1897; Dillon Tribune (MT), September 27, 1912].